In the period 1910-1924 in Germany, the Netherlands, Denmark, the Czech Republic and Austria, avant-garde art and architecture were defined as “expressionism”. The style is characterized by the use of biomorphic modeling of materials such as bricks, concrete and especially glass, using new knowledge about the design capabilities of materials. Especially after the war, when Germany was in a particularly difficult social and economic situation, architecture took on extremely expressive forms. The forms are deformed and evoke disturbing emotions, the tendencies are more gothic than classical, the architecture is treated as art more than usual, forms influenced by natural forms such as rocks, caves, mountains and crystals are used. The brightest name in painting is Caspar David Friedrich (bottom left), in architecture – Eric Mendelssohn (bottom right Einstein Tower in Potsdam, 1922).

Expressionism influenced world architecture even after the Second World War – the styles of Art Deco and Deconstructivism, for example. Great names such as Eero Saarinen and Santiago Calatrava use expressionist techniques in their works.

In 1993, Calatrava had an exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art in New York called Art and Expression.


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