Bauhaus

The Bauhaus University of Civil Engineering and Artistic Design is probably the most famous name of the architectural avant-garde of the early 20th century. The Bauhaus existed in Weimar, Germany from 1919 to 1933, when the Nazis closed it. The Bauhaus was led by Walter Gropius, and after 1930 by Miss van der Rohe. Influenced by Russian constructivism, the school nevertheless chose a more moderate path of development and essentially formulated principles that were later adopted by the so-called “International style” (see below). Gropius states the basic principle of the school as follows: “We want an architecture that suits our world of machines, radio and cars.” At the same time, this architecture should be achieved through a deep knowledge of the craft practices laid down in construction. It is paradoxical that Gropius fought against historicism in architecture, which is a wrong aesthetic product of the industrial age – ornaments that are glued to the facades were produced industrially in series.

The program diagram of training at the Bauhaus
A chair designed in the Bauhaus.
Typical architecture for the Bauhaus style – a house in Schemnitz, Saxony
Details of the Bauhaus building in Dessau
University of Weimar of Henri van de Velde

During the same period, the “modern” trend emerged in Germany – the term is also used for Art Nouveau, but it is a coincidence (Neues Bauen) associated with the Weimar Republic (1910-1930). The product of this trend are six residential areas in Berlin, the result of an innovative housing policy pursued during the Weimar Republic, when Berlin was undergoing turbulent political and social transformations. The areas are an example of new urban and architectural standards, innovative design and new technical solutions. The main architects of these projects are Bruno Tout, Martin Wagner and Walter Gropius, who have influenced housing in many countries around the world.

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